NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Caring for Adolescents and Young Adults - page 110

110
NCCN Guidelines for Patients
®
: Caring for Adolescents and Young Adults
Version 2013
Part 11: A cancer dictionary
Alkylating agents
Drugs that damage the instructions in
cancer cells so they can’t grow and
multiply.
Angiogenesis
The growth of new blood vessels
inside a cancerous tumor that is
crucial to the growth of tumors.
Apoptosis
Cell death as a result of instructions
that are built into the cell’s genetic
code. Also called programmed cell
death.
Barium swallow
A liquid containing barium sulfate (a
silver-white metallic substance) that
is swallowed to coat and outline the
walls of the esophagus and the upper
GI tract so that they can be seen on
an x-ray.
Bone marrow
Soft tissue found in the center of most
bones where blood cells are formed.
Bone marrow aspiration or biopsy
The removal of a small amount of
liquid bone marrow or solid bone
marrow tissue to examine for disease.
Bone marrow transplant
Procedure that gives blood or bone
marrow stem cells intravenously to
restore cells that have been destroyed
by cancer or its treatment.
Central nervous system (CNS)
The brain and spinal cord.
Central venous catheter (CVC)
A thin, flexible tube that is placed into
a vein in the upper arm, neck, thigh,
or below the collarbone.
Cervical cancer
Cancer of the cervix, the structure that
connects the uterus and vagina.
Chemotherapy
Drugs that kill all cells that grow
rapidly, including cancer cells and
normal cells.
Colorectal cancer
Cancer that develops in the colon
(digestive organ that changes eaten
food from liquid into solid form) and/or
the rectum.
Computed tomography (CT) scan
A test that uses x-rays from many
angles to make a picture of the inside
of the body.
Contrast material
A dye put into your body to make
clearer pictures during imaging tests.
Ejaculate
Mixture of sperm and other fluids
released through the penis during
orgasm. Also called semen.
Embryo
A fertilized egg that has been dividing
and growing for up to 8 weeks.
Endoscopic biopsy
Use of a thin, flexible tube with a
light and camera at the end to look
inside the body and take small tissue
samples to test for disease.
Enzymes
Proteins that speed up chemical
reactions in the body.
Excisional biopsy
Surgery that removes the entire tumor
to test for cancer cells.
External beam radiation therapy
Radiation therapy received from a
machine outside the body.
Fertility
The ability to become pregnant and
have a baby.
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