NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Colon Cancer - page 69

69
NCCN Guidelines for Patients™: Colon Cancer
Version 1.2012
Part 8:
Dictionary
Part 8: Dictionary
Carcinoembryonic antigen
A protein present in babies growing in
the womb or when cancer forms.
Cells
The “building blocks” of tissues in
the body.
Chemotherapy
Drugs used to kill cancer cells.
Chromosome
The part of the cell’s nucleus that
contains deoxyribonucleic acid.
Clinical staging
A cancer stage given by a doctor
before surgery.
Clinical trials
A type of research that compares
new treatments to the best current
treatment to find out which is better.
It may also compare different methods
to prevent or diagnose disease.
Colectomy
Surgery to remove a part of
the colon.
Colon
An organ in the digestive system that
changes eaten food from a liquid into
a solid form.
Colonoscope
A thin, long tube with a light and
camera used to see the colon.
Colonoscopy
Insertion of a thin tool into the colon
to view or remove tissue.
Colostomy
Surgery to connect a part of the colon
to the outside of the abdomen.
Complementary medicines
Treatments given alongside of
standard-of care treatments.
Complete blood count
A medical test that determines the
number of red blood cells, white
blood cells, and platelets in a
sample of blood.
Computed tomography (CT)
A test that uses x-rays to view
body parts.
Conformal external beam radiation
Radiotherapy that uses beams that
match the shape of the tumor.
Connective tissue
Supportive and binding fibers.
Contrast
A dye put into the body to make better
pictures during imaging tests.
Control group
Research participants who don’t
receive a new treatment.
Conversion treatment
Treatments given to qualify a person
for surgery.
Crohn’s disease
An inflammatory disease.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
The part of a cell containing genetic
information to build new cells.
Descending colon
The third part of the colon along the
left side of the body.
Diagnose
To identify a disease.
Digestive system
A set of organs in the body that
changes food into small parts for the
body to use as energy.
Diversion
Surgery to attach the colon to the
surface of the abdomen.
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