NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Colon Cancer - page 70

NCCN Guidelines for Patients™: Colon Cancer
Version 1.2012
70
Endoscopic polypectomy
Surgery to remove a polyp during a
colonoscopy.
Enema
Injection of liquid into the rectum to
clear the bowel.
Epithelium
Tissue that lines the colon wall.
Esophagus
The tube-shaped digestive organ
between the mouth and stomach.
External beam radiotherapy (EBRT)
Radiation therapy received from a
machine outside the body.
Familial adenomatous polyposis
An inherited medical condition that
increases the odds of colon cancer.
Fatigue
Severe tiredness despite getting
enough sleep that limits one’s ability
to function.
Feces
Unused food passed out of the body;
also called stool.
First-line treatment
The first treatment given.
Flexible sigmoidoscopy
Insertion of a thin tool into the sigmoid
colon to view or remove tissue.
Forceps
A medical tool shaped like tongs used
to grab and cut tissue.
Fragmented specimen
Tumor is removed in pieces during
surgery.
General anesthesia
A controlled loss of consciousness
from drugs.
Genes
Instructions in cells for building new
cells and controlling cell behavior.
Genetic condition
A medical problem caused by
abnormal genes.
Gilbert’s disease
A genetic condition that causes high
bilirubin levels.
Gray units (Gy)
A measure of radiation dose.
Guaiac stool test
A test that finds hidden blood
in stool.
Gut
Another name for the intestine;
also called the bowel.
Histologic subtype
The type of cancer based on the
traits of the cells.
Hyperplastic polyps
A polyp that grows fast and is often
found in the last part of the colon.
Imaging
Medical tests that take pictures of the
inside of the body.
Immune system
The body’s natural defense against
disease.
Inflammatory bowel disease
A medical condition that causes the
intestine to swell.
Informed consent form (ICF)
A document describing a study and
requiring a signature from participants
after review.
Infusion
The slow injection of a drug.
In situ polyp
Cancer cells in a polyp that have not
spread beyond the mucosa of the
colon wall.
Part 8: Dictionary
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