NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Colon Cancer - page 72

NCCN Guidelines for Patients™: Colon Cancer
Version 1.2012
72
Metastasis
The growth of cancer beyond
local tissue.
Microsatellite instability
Abnormal changes in a DNA part that
happen when DNA is making a copy
of itself.
Mouth
The opening at the start of the
digestive system that allows food to
be eaten.
Mucosa
The first, inner layer of the
colon wall.
Mucus
A sticky, thick liquid that moisturizes
or lubricates.
Muscularis mucosae
A thin layer of muscle within the
mucosa of the colon wall.
Muscularis propria
The third layer of the colon wall made
mostly of muscle.
Mutation
Abnormal changes in genes.
MYH-associated polyposis
An inherited medical condition that
increases the odds of colon cancer.
Needle biopsy
Insertion of a needle into the tumor to
remove tissue for testing.
Neoadjuvant treatment
Treatments given before the primary
treatment.
Nonperitonealized
Not connected to the peritoneum.
Nucleus
The control center of gene activity
within a cell.
Open surgery
Surgery with a knife done through a
large cut into the body.
Pathologic staging
A cancer stage given by a pathologist
based on surgery samples.
Pathologist
A doctor who specializes in testing
cells to identify disease.
Pedunculated polyp
A polyp shaped like a mushroom
with a stalk.
Perforation
A hole made in body tissue.
Pericolic nodes
Lymph nodes near the colon.
Perineural invasion
Spread of cancer into nearby nerves.
Perirectal nodes
Lymph nodes near the rectum.
Peritoneum
The lining of the abdomen.
Platelets
A type of blood cell responsible for
blood clotting.
Polyp
An extra growth of tissue from the
epithelium of the colon wall.
Polypectomy
Surgery to remove a polyp.
Portal vein embolization
The blood vessel to the liver tumor is
blocked causing the healthy part of the
liver to grow larger.
Positive lymph nodes
Lymph nodes with cancer cells.
Part 8: Dictionary
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