NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Colon Cancer - page 78

NCCN Guidelines for Patients
®
Colon Cancer, Version 1.2014
76
Glossary
Dictionary
Dictionary
abdomen
The belly area between the chest and pelvis.
ablation
Treatment using radiofrequency or cold to destroy cancer
cells.
adenocarcinoma
Cancer in cells that line organs and make fluids or
hormones.
adenomatous polyps
The most common type of polyp and is the most likely to
form cancer cells; also called adenoma.
adventitia
The outer layer, in some places, of the colon wall.
allergic reaction
Symptoms caused when the body is trying to rid itself of
invaders.
angiolymphatic invasion
Cancer has spread into the lymph vessels or bloodstream.
anus
The opening at the end of the digestive system that allows
stool to pass out of the body.
bilirubin
A substance in the body that causes bodily fluids to be
yellow.
bolus
A fast injection of a drug.
cancer grade
How closely the cancer cells look like normal cells.
cancer stage
The rating of the growth and spread of cancer.
carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
A protein present in babies growing in the womb or when
cancer forms.
carcinoma in situ
Abnormal or cancer cells have not grown into the next layer
of tissue.
chemotherapy
Drugs used to stop the growth cycles of cancer cells.
clinical stage
The rating of the extent of cancer based on tests before
treatment.
clinical trial
Research on a test or treatment to assess its safety or how
well it works.
colectomy
Surgery to remove a part of the colon.
colonoscope
A thin, long tube with a light and camera used to see the
colon.
colonoscopy
Insertion of a thin tool into the colon to view or remove
tissue.
colostomy
Surgery to connect a part of the colon to the outside of the
abdomen.
complete blood count (CBC)
A test that measures the parts of blood.
computed tomography (CT)
A test that uses x-rays from many angles to make a picture
of the insides of the body.
contrast
A dye put into the body to make clearer pictures during
imaging tests.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A very thin and long molecule that contains genetic code.
Also called the “blueprint of life.”
diagnosis
To identify a disease.
digestive system
A set of organs in the body that changes food into small parts
for the body to use as energy.
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