NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Colon Cancer - page 79

NCCN Guidelines for Patients
®
Colon Cancer, Version 1.2014
77
Glossary
Dictionary
endoscopic polypectomy
Surgery to remove a polyp during a colonoscopy.
enema
Injection of liquid into the rectum to clear the bowel.
epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)
A protein on the edge of a cell that sends signals for the cell
to grow.
epithelium
Tissue that lines the colon wall.
esophagus
The tube-shaped digestive organ between the mouth and
stomach.
familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
An inherited medical condition that increases the odds of
colon cancer.
gene
Coded instructions in cells for making new cells and
controlling how cells behave.
general anesthesia
A controlled loss of wakefulness from drugs.
hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC)
An inherited medical condition that increases the odds of
colon cancer. Also called Lynch syndrome.
histologic typing
The study of cells to classify disease.
hives
Itchy, swollen, and red skin caused by the body ridding itself
of an invader.
hyperplastic polyp
A polyp that grows fast and is often found in the last part of
the colon.
imaging test
A test that makes pictures of the insides of the body.
inflammatory bowel disease
A medical condition that causes the intestine to swell.
inflammatory polyp
A polyp that often grows after the intestine swells.
infusion
A method of giving drugs slowly through a needle into a vein.
intravenous (IV)
Receipt of a substance by a needle inserted into a vein.
invasive cancer
Cancer cells have grown into the supporting tissue of the
colon.
lamina propria
Connective tissue within the mucosa of the colon wall.
laparoscopic colectomy
Removal of the colon using a thin, long cutting tool that is
inserted through a small cut in the abdomen.
large intestine
The digestive organ that prepares unused food for leaving
the body.
laxative
Drugs used to clean out the intestines.
lymph
A clear fluid containing white blood cells.
lymphadenectomy
Surgery to remove lymph nodes.
lymph node
Small groups of special disease-fighting cells located
throughout the body.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
A test that uses radio waves and powerful magnets to make
pictures of the insides of the body.
medical history
All health events and medications taken to date.
metastasectomy
Surgery to remove cancer that has spread far from the first
tumor.
metastasis
The spread of cancer cells from the first (primary) tumor to a
distant site.
microsatellite instability
Abnormal changes in a DNA part that happen when DNA is
making a copy of itself.
mucosa
The first, inner layer of the colon wall.
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