NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Esophageal Cancer - page 23

23
NCCN Guidelines for Patients
®
: Esophageal Cancer
Version 1.2013
Part 3: Preparing for treatment
Par t 1
Par t 2
Par t 3
Par t 4
Par t 5
Par t 6
Par t 7
Par t 8
Par t 9
Definitions:
3.1 Tests by clinical stage
More testing is needed after receiving the tests listed in Part 2.1. Which tests
you’ll receive is based on the clinical stage of the cancer. Tests to confirm the
clinical stage are recommended. If the cancer is a stage IV adenocarcinoma,
testing to confirm your treatment options is needed.
Cancer stage
Test name
I, II, and III
PET/CT (
p
ositron
e
mission
t
omography-
c
omputed
t
omography)
I, II, and III
EUS (
e
ndoscopic
u
ltra
s
ound)
I, II, and III
EMR (
e
ndoscopic
m
ucosal
r
esection)
I, II, and III
Bronchoscopy (if needed)
I, II, and III
Laparoscopy if an adenocarcinoma at the
esophagogastric junction (if needed)
IV
Biopsy of distant site (if needed)
IV
HER2 (
h
uman
e
pidermal growth factor
r
eceptor
2
) testing if an adenocarcinoma
PET/CT scan
A PET/CT scan is the use of two imaging tests to see how far the cancer has
spread. These two tests are a CT scan, which is described in Part 2.1, and
a PET scan. Some cancer centers have an imaging machine that does both
scans. At other centers, the scans are done with two machines.
While x-rays and contrast dye are used for a CT scan, a sugar radiotracer is
used for a PET scan. Before PET, you must fast for 4 hours or more. About an
hour before the scan, you will be injected with the radiotracer. The radiotracer
emits a small amount of energy that is detected by the imaging machine that
takes pictures. Cancer appears brighter in the pictures because cancer cells use
sugar more quickly than normal cells.
adenocarcinoma:
Cancer
of cells that make mucus to
keep the esophagus moist
biopsy:
Removal of small
amounts of tissue or fluid to
be tested for disease
Esophagogastric junction:
The area where the
esophagus and stomach
join
Imaging test:
A test that
makes pictures of the
insides of the body
Radiotracer:
A substance
that releases a small
amount of radiation
Acronyms:
CT
=
computed tomography
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