NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Melanoma - page 95

NCCN Guidelines for Patients
®
Melanoma, Version 1.2014
93
Glossary
Dictionary
cells
The “building blocks” of tissues in the body.
central nervous system (CNS)
The brain and spinal cord.
chemotherapy
Drugs that kill fast-growing cells, including normal cells and
cancer cells.
Clark level
A scale of tumor depth with 5 scores based on which layer of
skin the tumor has grown into.
clinical stage
A rating of the extent of melanoma in the body based on
the physical exam, imaging tests, and biopsy of the first
(primary) melanoma tumor.
clinical trial
Research on a test or treatment to assess its safety or how
well it works.
combination regimen
The use of two or more drugs.
computed tomography (CT) scan
A test that uses x-rays from many angles to make a picture
of the inside of the body.
connective tissue
Supporting and binding tissue that surrounds other tissues
and organs.
contrast dye
A dye put into your body to make clearer pictures during
imaging tests (tests that take pictures of the inside of the
body).
cytokines
Substances made in the body that boost or activate the
immune system (the body’s natural defense against
disease). Cytokines can also be made in a lab.
deep margin status
Presence or absence of cancer cells in the normal-looking
tissue under a tumor removed during surgery.
dermal mitotic rate
A measure of how many cancer cells are actually growing
and dividing.
dermatologist
A doctor who’s an expert in diseases of the skin.
dermatopathologist
A doctor who’s an expert in testing skin cells and tissues for
disease.
dermis
The second layer of skin that is beneath the top layer
(epidermis).
desmoplastic melanoma
A melanoma tumor with dense connective tissue.
diagnosis
Identification of a disease.
enlarged
Bigger in size than normal.
epidermis
The outer layer of skin.
excision
Removal by surgery.
excisional biopsy
Surgery that removes the entire skin tumor or abnormal-
looking area (lesion) to test for cancer cells.
excisional lymph node biopsy
Surgery that removes the entire enlarged lymph node(s)
through a surgical cut in the skin to test for cancer cells.
external beam radiation therapy
Radiation therapy (use of high-energy rays to destroy cancer
cells) received from a machine outside the body.
fatigue
Severe tiredness despite getting enough sleep that limits
one’s ability to function.
fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy
Use of a thin needle to remove fluid or tissue from the body
to be tested for disease.
follow-up tests
Tests done after treatment to check for signs of cancer return
(recurrence) or spread (metastasis).
genes
A set of coded instructions in cells for making new cells and
controlling how cells behave.
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