NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Multiple Myeloma - page 18

16
NCCN Guidelines for Patients
®
Multiple Myeloma, Version 1.2014
2
Tests for myeloma
Urine tests
• BUN (
b
lood
u
rea
n
itrogen) is a waste product
made by the liver and filtered out of blood into
urine by the kidneys. BUN is measured with a
blood chemistry test and high levels may be a
sign of kidney damage.
• Electrolytes are minerals in the blood needed
for organs to work well. They are measured
with a blood chemistry test. High levels of
electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and
calcium may be a sign of kidney damage.
• A large amount of M-proteins in your blood
can cause blood to become very thick—a
condition called hyperviscosity. This can
damage your kidneys and other organs.
Serum viscosity is a blood test that measures
the thickness of your blood. High levels of
light chains in the urine can also cause kidney
damage.
Urine tests
Besides blood, doctors also test urine to look for
signs of disease. Urine tests can be used to diagnose
myeloma, assess if organs are working well, and
check the results of cancer treatments. Urine tests
used for myeloma are described next.
Tumor burden
• UPEP (
u
rine
p
rotein
e
lectro
p
horesis)
measures the amount of M-proteins in the
urine. Urine is collected for 24 hours then sent
to a lab for testing.
• UIFE (
u
rine
i
mmuno
f
ixation
e
lectrophoresis)
identifies the type of M-proteins present. Only
light chains, not heavy chains, are found in
urine.
• Total protein is a test that measures the
amount and type of protein in urine over a
24-hour period. Testing 24-hour urine for light
chains (also called Bence Jones protein)
is helpful to measure the tumor burden in
patients with myeloma cells that mainly or only
make light chains.
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