NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Prostate Cancer - page 12

NCCN Guidelines for Patients
: Prostate Cancer
Version 1.2014
Part 2: Cancer staging
Prostate biopsies often occur with no problems. However,
side effects are possible. Some people have allergic
reactions to anesthesia. Tell your doctor if you’ve had any
problems with anesthesia in the past. The prostate biopsy
may cause:
• Blood in your semen (hematospermia) or
urine (hematuria),
• Rectal bleeding,
• Infection,
• Swelling of your prostate (prostatitis) or
epididymis (epididymitis),
• Inability to empty your bladder (urinary
retention), and
• Hospitalization.
2.4 Gleason score
Not all cells from a prostate cancer look the same. Some
cells may look near normal while other cells may look
very abnormal. Prostate cancer is graded based on
how well the cancer cells can form into glands. A normal
prostate has glands, but cancer cells can lose their ability
to form glands.
The grading system for prostate cancer is called the
Gleason score. The Gleason score is used by doctors to
plan treatment. Gleason scores range from 2 to 10, but
Figure 3. Gleason grades
Used with permission from Jonathan I. Epstein, M.D.
1...,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11 13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,...92
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