NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Prostate Cancer - page 14

14
NCCN Guidelines for Patients
®
: Prostate Cancer
Version 1.2014
Part 2: Cancer staging
T1c
tumors are found by needle biopsy that was
done for a high PSA level.
T2 tumors can be felt by your doctor during a DRE. They
also may be seen with an imaging test. T2 scores are
based on cancer growth within the lobes—the left and
right halves of the prostate. See Figure 4. T2 tumors
haven’t grown outside the prostate gland.
T2a
tumors haven’t grown beyond half of one lobe.
T2b
tumors have grown beyond half of one lobe but
not to the other lobe.
T2c
tumors have grown into both lobes.T3 tumors
have grown outside the prostate. They have reached
the connective tissue around the prostate, the
seminal vesicles, or the neck of the bladder. This
group is subdivided into T3a and T3b.
T3a
tumors have grown outside the prostate but not
into the seminal vesicle(s).
T3b
tumors have grown outside the prostate and
into the seminal vesicle(s).
T4 tumors have spread into nearby tissues other than the
seminal vesicles, or biopsy or imaging results show that
these tumors are fixed to nearby tissues. These tissues
include the external sphincter, rectum, bladder, levator
muscles, and pelvic wall.
T4
tumors are fixed to or have grown into nearby
tissues other than seminal vesicles.
N = Nodes
The N category reflects if the cancer has spread within
nearby lymph nodes. Nearby lymph nodes include the
hypogastric, obturator, internal and external iliac, and
sacral lymph nodes. These nodes are shown in Figure 5.
N scores for prostate cancer include:
NX
means it is unknown if there is cancer in lymph
nodes.
N0
means that there is no cancer within the nearby
lymph nodes.
N1
means that the cancer has spread into the
nearby lymph nodes. Most often, prostate cancer
spreads to the external iliac, internal iliac, or
obturator nodes.
Figure 4. Areas of tumor growth
Illustration Copyright © 2014 Nucleus Medical Media, All rights reserved.
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