NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Prostate Cancer - page 15

15
NCCN Guidelines for Patients
®
: Prostate Cancer
Version 1.2014
Part 2: Cancer staging
Par t 1
Par t 2
Par t 3
Par t 4
Par t 5
Par t 6
Par t 7
Par t 8
Par t 9
Definitions:
Imaging test:
A test that
makes pictures of the
insides of the body
External sphincter:
Muscle that controls the
flow of urine from the
bladder through the urethra
Levator muscles:
Muscles
that support the prostate
and control the flow of urine
Metastasize:
The spread
of cancer cells from the first
tumor to another site
Pelvic wall:
A layer of
muscles and tissue that
helps organs in the pelvis
to stay in place
Rectum:
The last part of
the large intestine
!
Read Part 1 for other
definitions of tissues
inornear theprostate.
M = Metastasis
The M category tells you if the cancer has spread to distant sites. Para-aortic,
common iliac, inguinal, supraclavicular, scalene, and cervical lymph nodes are distant
from the prostate. These nodes are shown in Figure 5. Prostate cancer tends to
metastasize to bone then the lungs and liver. M scores for prostate cancer include:
MX
means it is unknown if cancer has spread to distant sites.
M0
means that there is no growth to distant sites.
M1
means that the cancer has spread to distant sites.
M1a
is cancer that has spread to distant lymph nodes.
M1b
is cancer that has spread to bone(s).
M1c
is cancer that has spread to distant organs.
Figure 5. Nearby and distant lymph nodes
Illustration Copyright © 2014 Nucleus Medical Media, All rights reserved.
Acronyms:
DRE
= Digital rectal exam
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