NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Prostate Cancer - page 35

35
NCCN Guidelines for Patients
®
: Prostate Cancer
Version 1.2014
Part 4: Overview of cancer treatments
Par t 1
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Par t 4
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Par t 9
Definitions:
Colitis:
Swelling of the
colon
Fistula:
A passage
between two organs that
aren’t normally connected
Hematuria:
Blood in urine
Paresthesia:
Sensations of
burning or tingling
Primary treatment:
Medicine to cure or control
cancer
Salvage treatment:
Medicine used after
primary treatment fails
TURP:
Surgical removal
of some prostatic tissue
through the urethra
Urge incontinence:
The
feeling of having to rush to
urinate or you’ll leak urine
Urinary retention:
Inability
to empty the bladder
into your prostate. Imaging tests are used to place the needles. Argon gas will
flow through the needles and freeze your prostate to below-zero temperatures.
Freezing kills the cancer cells. Your urethra will be spared by use of a catheter
filled with warm liquid. This treatment is often done as an outpatient procedure.
The full range of side effects from cryotherapy is unknown. More research
is needed. Known short-term side effects include urinary retention, painful
swelling, and penile paresthesia. Long-term side effects include fistulas, stress
incontinence, erectile dysfunction, and blockage of the urethra with rectal scar
tissue.
4.4 ADT
(
a
ndrogen
d
eprivation
t
herapy, hormone therapy)
Prostate cancer cells need hormones called androgens to grow. The main male
androgen is testosterone. ADT will stop your body from making testosterone or
will stop the action of testosterone. ADT can slow tumor growth or shrink the
tumor for a period of time. Types of ADT include:
Bilateral orchiectomy
is the surgical removal of both testicles. They are
removed since they make most of the testosterone in the body.
LHRH
(
l
uteinizing
h
ormone-
r
eleasing
h
ormone)
agonists
are drugs used
to stop the testicles from making testosterone. They are either injected into
a muscle or implanted under the skin every 1, 3, 4, 6, or 12 months. LHRH
agonists include goserelin acetate, histrelin acetate, leuprolide acetate, and
triptorelin palmoate.
LHRH antagonists
are drugs used to stop the testicles from making
testosterone. They are injected under the skin usually every month.
Degarelix is an LHRH antagonist.
Antiandrogens
are drugs that block receptors on cancer cells from
receiving testosterone. Antiandrogens include bicalutamide, flutamide,
nilutamide, and enzalutamide.
Readpages29–31for
comparison to side
effects of surgery.
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