NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Prostate Cancer - page 80

80
NCCN Guidelines for Patients
®
: Prostate Cancer
Version 1.2014
Part 9: Dictionary
Active surveillance
Delay of treatment with ongoing
testing to watch for cancer growth.
Adenocarcinoma
Cancer in cells that line organs and
make fluids or hormones.
Adjuvant treatment
Treatment that follows primary
treatment.
Androgen
A hormone found in high levels in
males that is involved in sexual
development and functioning.
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)
Treatment that stops the making or
action of hormones in the body. Also
called hormone therapy.
Androgen synthesis inhibitor
A drug that blocks the making of
androgen at different sites.
Antiandrogen
A drug used to stop the action of
testosterone.
Antiandrogen withdrawal response
Decreases in the level of
prostate-specific antigen when an
antiandrogen is stopped.
Bilateral orchiectomy
Surgical removal of both testicles.
Biochemical relapse
A rise in prostate-specific antigen level
after cancer treatment.
Biopsy
A medical procedure that removes
tissue to test for disease.
Blood cell count
The number of red blood cells, white
blood cells, and platelets in blood.
Bone metastases
Cancer that has spread to the bones.
Bone scan
A test for bone diseases.
Brachytherapy
The placement of radioactive objects
near or in a tumor.
Cancer stage
A rating by doctors of the extent
of the cancer.
Castration therapy
Orchiectomy or drugs that greatly
reduce the level of testosterone.
Cavernous nerves
Nerves that send signals to start
penile erections.
Clinical trial
Research comparing new and current
treatments to find out which is better.
Combined androgen blockade (CAB)
Castration therapy combined with an
antiandrogen.
Computed tomography (CT)
A test that uses x-rays to view
body parts.
Cryosurgery
Treatment that freezes tissue to
kill cancer cells
.
Digital rectal exam (DRE)
A medical exam of the prostate
by feeling it through the wall of
the rectum.
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