NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Stages I and II Breast Cancer - page 84

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NCCN Guidelines for Patients
®
Stages I and II Breast Cancer, Version 1.2014
Glossary
Dictionary
Dictionary
abdomen
The belly area between the chest and pelvis.
adjuvant treatment
Treatment given after the main treatment used to cure
disease.
adrenal gland
A small organ on top of each kidney that makes hormones.
alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
A protein found in most tissues of the body.
allergic reaction
Symptoms caused when the body is trying to rid itself of
invaders.
antiestrogen
A drug that stops estrogen from attaching to cells.
areola
A darker, circular area of skin on the breast surrounding the
nipple.
aromatase inhibitor
A drug that lowers the level of estrogen in the body.
axillary lymph nodes
Lymph nodes under the armpit.
axillary lymph node dissection
Surgery to remove axillary lymph nodes.
bilateral oophorectomy
Surgical removal of both ovaries.
biopsy
Removal of small amounts of tissue or fluid to be tested for
disease.
body mass index (BMI)
A measure of body fat based on height and weight.
bone mineral density
A test that measures the strength of bones.
bone scan
A test that uses radioactive material to assess for bone
damage.
boost
An extra dose of radiation to a specific area of the body.
brachytherapy
Radiation received from a radioactive object placed near or
in the tumor. Also called internal radiation.
breast-conserving therapy
Cancer treatment that includes removing the breast lump
and radiation therapy.
breast implant
A small bag filled with salt water, gel, or both that is used to
remake breasts.
breast reconstruction
Surgery to rebuild breasts.
cancer staging
The rating of the growth and spread of cancer.
carcinoma
Cancer that starts in cells that form the lining of organs and
structures in the body.
catheter
A flexible tube inserted in the body to give treatment or drain
fluid from the body.
chest wall
The layer of muscle, bone, and tissue on the outer part of the
chest.
clinical breast exam
A physical exam of the breasts by a health professional to
feel for disease.
clinical stage
The rating of the extent of cancer based on tests before
treatment.
complete blood count (CBC)
A test of the number of blood cells.
computed tomography (CT)
A test that uses x-rays from many angles to make a picture
of the insides of the body.
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