NCCN Guidelines for Patients
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Version 1.2017
Testing for ALL
Blood tests and urinalysis
For this reason, your doctor is likely to perform blood
tests to look for these viruses, which include hepatitis
B, hepatitis C, HIV, and in some cases CMV.
on page 15.
Hepatitis B and C are viruses that cause the liver
to become inflamed. The HIV virus damages
your immune system and causes AIDs (
yndrome). CMV is a common
virus and causes harm to those with a weak immune
system. These viruses can be transmitted through
Blood clotting tests
Blood clotting tests are used to assess if blood is
able to clot (coagulate) the way it should. Platelets
and proteins called clotting factors help control
bleeding in the body.
When a person is cut or injured, platelets and clotting
factors clump together to form a clot to stop bleeding.
Abnormal levels of platelets or clotting factors can
cause bleeding problems.
TLS is a condition that occurs when many cancer
cells die very quickly due to treatment. As cancer
cells die, they release their contents into the blood.
This can cause very high levels of certain chemicals
in the blood.
A TLS panel measures the levels of these chemicals
in the blood. Uric acid is one of the chemicals
released by dying cancer cells. Very high levels of
uric acid and other chemicals in the blood can be
very dangerous. It can cause serious damage to
organs such as the kidneys and heart.
HLAs are special proteins found on the surface
of most cells in the body. The unique set of HLA
proteins on a person’s cells is called the HLA type or
tissue type. All cells in a single person have the same
HLA type. This helps the body to tell its own cells
apart from foreign cells. It also affects how the body
responds to foreign substances.
HLA typing is a blood test that finds a person’s
HLA type. This test is used to find the right donor
for a stem cell transplant—a treatment that may be
considered for some patients with ALL. (See
Part 4 on page 38 for details about this treatment)
Your tissue type and the donor’s tissue type must be
a near-perfect match for this treatment to work.
Type and screen
Blood types differ among people just like tissue types
differ among people. Type and screen is a test that
finds a person’s blood type. It also looks for signs
that certain blood types may not be a good match or
may not be safe to give to a patient.
This test is needed if you will receive a transfusion
of blood from another person (donor). The donor’s
blood type must be a good match that works well
with your blood type.
Urinalysis is a test that checks the content of urine
using a microscope and chemical tests. Doctors use
this test to look for small amounts of blood or other
abnormal substances in urine that can’t be seen with
the naked eye. Blood in urine may be caused by
kidney or other health problems.