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17

NCCN Guidelines for Patients

®

:

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Version 1.2017

2

Testing for ALL

Blood tests and urinalysis

For this reason, your doctor is likely to perform blood

tests to look for these viruses, which include hepatitis

B, hepatitis C, HIV, and in some cases CMV.

See

Guide 3

on page 15.

Hepatitis B and C are viruses that cause the liver

to become inflamed. The HIV virus damages

your immune system and causes AIDs (

a

cquired

i

mmuno

d

eficiency

s

yndrome). CMV is a common

virus and causes harm to those with a weak immune

system. These viruses can be transmitted through

bodily fluids.

Blood clotting tests

Blood clotting tests are used to assess if blood is

able to clot (coagulate) the way it should. Platelets

and proteins called clotting factors help control

bleeding in the body.

When a person is cut or injured, platelets and clotting

factors clump together to form a clot to stop bleeding.

Abnormal levels of platelets or clotting factors can

cause bleeding problems.

TLS panel

TLS is a condition that occurs when many cancer

cells die very quickly due to treatment. As cancer

cells die, they release their contents into the blood.

This can cause very high levels of certain chemicals

in the blood.

A TLS panel measures the levels of these chemicals

in the blood. Uric acid is one of the chemicals

released by dying cancer cells. Very high levels of

uric acid and other chemicals in the blood can be

very dangerous. It can cause serious damage to

organs such as the kidneys and heart.

HLA typing

HLAs are special proteins found on the surface

of most cells in the body. The unique set of HLA

proteins on a person’s cells is called the HLA type or

tissue type. All cells in a single person have the same

HLA type. This helps the body to tell its own cells

apart from foreign cells. It also affects how the body

responds to foreign substances.

HLA typing is a blood test that finds a person’s

HLA type. This test is used to find the right donor

for a stem cell transplant—a treatment that may be

considered for some patients with ALL. (See

Part 4 on page 38 for details about this treatment)

Your tissue type and the donor’s tissue type must be

a near-perfect match for this treatment to work.

Type and screen

Blood types differ among people just like tissue types

differ among people. Type and screen is a test that

finds a person’s blood type. It also looks for signs

that certain blood types may not be a good match or

may not be safe to give to a patient.

This test is needed if you will receive a transfusion

of blood from another person (donor). The donor’s

blood type must be a good match that works well

with your blood type.

Urinalysis

Urinalysis is a test that checks the content of urine

using a microscope and chemical tests. Doctors use

this test to look for small amounts of blood or other

abnormal substances in urine that can’t be seen with

the naked eye. Blood in urine may be caused by

kidney or other health problems.