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79

NCCN Guidelines for Patients

®

:

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Version 1.2017

Dictionary

central nervous system (CNS) preventive

treatment

Treatment given to keep leukemia cells from spreading to

the fluid around the brain and spinal cord. Also called CNS

prophylaxis.

central venous line

A thin, flexible tube that is inserted into a vein to give

medicine or take a sample of blood. Also called central line

or catheter.

cerebrospinal fluid

The fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. Also

called spinal fluid.

chemotherapy

Drugs that kill fast-growing cells, including cancer cells and

normal cells.

chromosomes

Long strands of coded instructions in cells for making and

controlling cells.

clinical trial

Research on a test or treatment to assess its safety or how

well it works.

combination regimen

The use of two or more drugs.

complete blood count (CBC)

A test of the number of blood cells in a sample.

complete remission

No leukemia cells are found in the blood or bone marrow

and all signs and symptoms of the cancer are gone.

computed tomography (CT) scan

A test that uses x-rays from many angles to make a picture

of the inside of the body.

consolidation

The second round (phase) of treatment that is given when

leukemia cells are no longer seen in the blood or bone

marrow. Also called intensification or consolidation therapy.

contrast

A dye put into your body to make clearer pictures during

imaging tests.

corticosteroid

A drug used to reduce redness, swelling, and pain, but also

to kill leukemia cells. Also called steroid.

cranial irradiation

Treatment with high-energy rays (radiation) directed at the

brain.

cycle

Days of treatment followed by days of rest.

cytogenetic subtype

Smaller groups a type of cancer is classified into based on

abnormal changes in the chromosomes (long strands of

coded instructions) of the cancer cells.

cytogenetic testing

A test that uses a microscope to examine a cell’s

chromosomes.

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

A chain of chemicals in cells that contains coded instructions

for making and controlling cells.

diagnose

To confirm or identify a disease or health condition.

differential

Measurement of the different types of white blood cells

present in a blood sample.

donor

A person who gives their organs, tissues, or cells to another

person.

echocardiogram

A test that uses sound waves to make pictures of the heart.

fatigue

Severe tiredness despite getting enough sleep that limits

one’s ability to function.

flow cytometry

A test that looks at certain substances on the surface of

cells to identify the type of cells present.

fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

A lab test that uses special dyes to look for abnormal

changes in a cell’s genes (coded instructions for controlling

cells) and chromosomes (long strands of genes).