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NCCN Guidelines for Patients

®

:

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Version 1.2017

Dictionary

follow-up test

Tests done after the start of treatment to check how well

treatment is working.

fusion gene

A gene that is made by joining parts of two separate genes.

gene

A set of coded instructions in cells needed to make new

cells and control how cells behave.

gene mutation

Abnormal change in the coded instructions in cells for

making and controlling cells.

good risk feature

Something linked with a lower chance (risk) that cancer will

come back after treatment.

graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)

A disease that occurs when transplanted stem cells attack a

patient’s normal cells.

graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect

An attack on cancer cells by transplanted blood stem cells.

growth factor

A substance that helps new blood cells to be made.

human leukocyte antigen (HLA)

Special proteins on the surface of cells that help the body to

tell its own cells apart from foreign cells.

human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type

The unique set of proteins on the surface of cells that help

the body to tell its own cells apart from foreign cells.

human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing

A blood test that finds a person’s HLA type—the unique set

of proteins on the surface of cells that help the body to tell

its own cells apart from foreign cells.

imaging test

A test that makes pictures (images) of the inside of the body.

immune system

The body’s natural defense against infection and disease.

immunophenotype

The unique set and pattern of proteins on the surface of

white blood cells that can be used to identify the type of cell.

immunophenotyping

The process of identifying the specific type of cells present

based on the unique set of proteins on the surface of the

cells.

induction

The first round (phase) of treatment given to rid the body of

leukemia cells. Also called remission induction or induction

therapy.

inflammation

Redness, heat, pain, and swelling caused by illness or

injury.

intensification

The second round (phase) of treatment that is given when

leukemia cells are no longer seen in the blood or bone

marrow. Also called consolidation or intensification therapy.

intestine

The organ that food passes through after leaving the

stomach.

intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy

Cancer drugs that are injected into the fluid that surrounds

the brain and spinal cord—the bundle of nerves that runs

from the base of the skull down the back.

intravenous (IV)

Given by a needle or tube inserted into a vein.

kidneys

A pair of organs that filter blood and remove waste from the

body through urine.

leukemia

A type of cancer that starts in blood-forming cells in the

bone marrow—the soft, sponge-like tissue in the center of

most bones where blood cells are made.

leukemia cell

Abnormal, immature white blood cell that grows and divides

all the time without control.

liver

Organ that removes waste from the blood and helps to

digest food.

liver function test

Test that measures chemicals in the blood that are made or

processed by the liver.

local anesthesia

A controlled loss of feeling in a small area of the body

caused by drugs.