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98

NCCN Guidelines for Patients

®

Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer, Version 1.2017

Glossary

Dictionary

Dictionary

abdomen

The belly area between the chest and pelvis.

acquired mutation

A mutation that happens after conception.

alkylating agent

A cancer drug that damages coded instructions in cells by

adding a chemical to them.

angiogenesis

The growth of new blood vessels.

apoptosis

The natural death of cells. Also called programmed cell

death.

alternative medicine

Treatments used in place of ones usually given by doctors.

Also called alternative therapy or alternative treatment.

bone marrow

The soft, sponge-like tissue found in the center of most

bones, where blood cells are formed.

bone marrow transplant

Procedure that gives blood or bone marrow stem cells

intravenously to restore cells that have been destroyed by

cancer or its treatment.

breast cancer

Cancer of the breast.

cataract

A health condition in which the lens of the eye becomes

cloudy.

cell

The "building blocks" of tissues in the body.

central nervous system (CNS)

The brain and spinal cord.

cervical cancer

Cancer that started in cells within the neck of the womb,

which is called the cervix.

chemotherapy

Drugs that kill cancer cells by damaging or disrupting the

making of the genetic code.

clinical trial

Research study on a test or treatment to assess its safety or

how well it works.

colorectal cancer

Cancer that starts in the colon, rectum, or both.

computed tomography (CT) scan

A test that combines many x-rays taken from different angles

to make a picture of the insides of the body.

complementary medicine

Treatment given along with standard treatment. Also called

complementary therapy or complementary treatment.

contrast material

A dye that is put into the body to make clearer pictures

during imaging tests.

eligibility criteria

For a clinical trial, certain terms a person needs to meet

to take part in the research study. These terms make sure

the people on the clinical trial are alike so that research is

focused on what is being tested. The terms may include

things like age, type of cancer, and general health.

ejaculate

A mix of sperm and fluids. Also called semen.

embryo

A fertilized egg that has been growing for up to eight weeks.

endoscopic biopsy

Use of a thin tool that is guided down the esophagus to

remove tissue samples.

enzyme

Proteins that speed up chemical reactions in the body.