NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Brain Cancer - Gliomas
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14

NCCN Guidelines for Patients

®

:

Brain Cancer – Gliomas, Version 1.2016

1

Glioma basics

Types of gliomas | Symptoms of gliomas

Types of gliomas

There are multiple types of gliomas. Most gliomas

that occur in adults are listed in

Guide 1

. The main

types of gliomas are grouped by the glial cell from

which they derived. Microglial cells do not become

cancer cells. However, they are sometimes found in

and around glial tumors.

Gliomas differ by their cell of origin and by other

features, too. Research has found that glioma

cells can differ in tiny parts, called molecules. Key

molecular features of gliomas are discussed in

Part 2. This information has recently been used by

WHO (

W

orld

H

ealth

O

rganization) to further group

gliomas.

Cancer grades differ among the cancer types.

Astrocytomas range from grade I to grade IV.

Pilocytic astrocytomas are quite different from

other astrocytomas. They rarely occur in adults

but commonly occur in children. Only astrocytes

can be grade IV. Grade IV astrocytomas include

glioblastoma and gliosarcoma.

Symptoms of gliomas

Larger glial tumors are likely to cause symptoms. The

symptoms that may occur partly depend on where

the glial tumor is in the nervous system and how

fast it grows. Common symptoms include memory

problems, headaches, personality changes, seizures,

speech problems, and numbness or weakness in the

arms, legs, or face.

Guide 1. Gliomas in adults

Glial cell

Type of glioma

Cancer grade

Astrocyte

Pilocytic astrocytoma

Grade I

Diffuse astrocytoma

Grade II

Anaplastic astrocytoma

Grade III

Glioblastoma

Grade IV

Gliosarcoma

Grade IV

Ependymal cell

Subependymoma

Grade I

Myxopapillary ependymoma

Grade I

Ependymoma

Grade II

Anaplastic ependymoma

Grade III

Oligodendrocyte

Oligodendroglioma

Grade II

Anaplastic oligodendroglioma

Grade III

Mixed cell

Oligoastrocytoma

Grade II

Anaplastic oligoastrocytoma

Grade III