NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
63 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® : Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, 2018 Dictionary differential Measurement of the different types of white blood cells present in a blood sample. echocardiogram A test that uses sound waves to make pictures of the heart. fatigue Severe tiredness despite getting enough sleep that limits one’s ability to function. fertility specialist An expert who helps men and women have babies. flow cytometry A test that looks at certain substances on the surface of cells to identify the type of cells present. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) A lab test that uses special dyes to look for abnormal chromosomes. gene Instructions in cells for making and controlling cells. graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect An attack on cancer cells by transplanted stem cells from a donor. haptoglobin One of the proteins made by the liver. hemoglobin A protein with iron that is released from destroyed red blood cells. hemolysis The early death of red blood cells. human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing A blood test that finds a person’s unique set of proteins on cells. imaging test A test that makes pictures (images) of the inside of the body. immune system The body’s natural defense against disease. immunoglobulin A protein made by white blood cells that helps fight off infection. Also called an antibody. immunohistochemistry (IHC) A test of cancer cells to find specific cell traits involved in abnormal cell growth. immunomodulator A type of drug that modifies some parts of the body’s disease-fighting system. lactate dehydrogenase A protein that helps to make energy in cells. liver Organ that removes waste from the blood and helps to digest food. local anesthesia A controlled loss of feeling in a small area of the body caused by drugs. lymph A clear fluid containing white blood cells. lymph node Small groups of special disease-fighting cells located throughout the body. lymph vessel Tube-shaped ducts that carry lymph throughout the body. lymphatic system A network in the body that collects and transports a fluid (lymph) and fights germs. lymphocyte A type of white blood cell that helps protect the body from illness. lymphoma Cancer that begins in white blood cells called lymphocytes that are within the lymphatic system. karyotyping A test that uses a microscope to examine a cell’s chromosomes. kinase inhibitors Cancer treatment that stops the transfer of phosphates, which blocks growth signals to cancer cells. mantle cell lymphoma A cancer that is defined by too many proteins called cyclin D1. medical history All health events and medications taken to date. methylation analysis A lab test that looks for chemical tags, called methyl groups, on DNA.