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98

NCCN Guidelines for Patients

®

Esophageal Cancer, Version 1.2016

Glossary

Dictionary

Dictionary

abdomen

The belly area between the chest and pelvis.

ablation

Treatment that destroys very small tumors.

adenocarcinoma

Cancer of cells that make fluids or hormones.

adventitia

The fourth layer of the esophageal wall.

azygos vein

A large vein on the right side of the spine within the chest.

Barrett’s esophagus

The presence of stomach cells within the lining of the

esophagus.

biopsy

Removal of small amounts of tissue or fluid to be tested for

disease.

bronchi

The two airways extending from the windpipe into the lungs.

bronchoscope

A thin, long tube fitted with tools that is guided down the

throat.

bronchoscopy

Use of a thin tool guided down the throat into the lungs.

cancer grade

A rating of how much cancer cells look like normal cells.

cancer stage

A rating of the growth and spread of tumors. 

carina

Firm, flexible, supportive tissue at the base of the windpipe.

chemotherapy

Drugs that stop the growth process of cells in an active

growth phase.

clinical stage

Rating the extent of a tumor based on tests before treatment.

clinical trial

Research on a test or treatment to assess its safety or how

well it works.

complete blood count (CBC)

A test of the number of blood cells.

computed tomography (CT)

A test that uses x-rays to view body parts.

contrast

A dye put into your body to make clearer pictures during

imaging tests.

cryoablation

Treatment that kills cancer cells by freezing them.

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

A chain of chemicals inside cells that contains coded

instructions for making and controlling cells.

diaphragm

A sheet of muscles below the ribs that helps a person to

breathe.

digestive system

A set of organs that breaks down food for the body to use.

dysphagia

Difficult or painful swallowing.

Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG)

Performance Scale

A rating scale of one’s ability to do daily activities.

electrode

A small device that transmits electricity.

endoscope

A thin, long tube fitted with tools that is guided down the

throat.

endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR)

Removal of early tumors with a snare that has been guided

down the throat.

endoscopic resection

Treatment that removes early tumors with a tool guided

down the throat.