NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Myelodysplastic Syndromes
62 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® : Myelodysplastic Syndromes, 2018 Dictionary Dictionary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) A fast-growing cancer that starts in the bone marrow and causes too many immature white blood cells to be made. allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) A treatment in which the patient receives healthy, immature blood-forming cells from another person to replace damaged or diseased cells in the bone marrow. anemia A condition in which the number of red blood cells is low. BCR-ABL1 gene An abnormal gene that is formed when parts of chromosomes 9 and 22 break off and switch with each other. This gene is found on the Philadelphia chromosome and is the key feature of chronic myeloid leukemia. biopsy Removal of small amounts of tissue from the body to be tested for disease. blast cell An immature blood cell. blood cell count The number of blood cells in a sample of blood. blood cell growth factors Substances that cause new blood cells to grow in the bone marrow. blood smear A test in which a drop of blood is placed on a slide and viewed with a microscope to assess the size, shape, type, and maturity of the blood cells. blood stem cell An immature blood-forming cell from which all other types of blood cells are made. Also called hematopoietic stem cell. bloodstream Blood that flows throughout the body in small tubes called blood vessels. bone marrow The soft, sponge-like tissue in the center of most bones where blood cells are made. bone marrow aspiration The removal of a small amount of liquid bone marrow to test for disease. bone marrow biopsy The removal of a small amount of solid bone and bone marrow to test for disease. chemotherapy Treatment with drugs that kill abnormal cells or stop new ones from being made. chromosomes Long strands that contain bundles of coded instructions in cells for making and controlling cells. chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) A slow-growing cancer that starts in the bone marrow and causes too many white blood cells called granulocytes to form. clinical trial Research on a test or treatment to assess its safety or how well it works. complete blood count (CBC) A test of the number of blood cells in a sample. conditioning treatment Treatment that is used to destroy cells in the bone marrow to prepare (condition) the body for a hematopoietic cell transplant. cycle Days of treatment followed by days of rest. cytogenetic testing A test that uses a microscope to examine a cell’s chromosomes—long strands of coded instructions in cells for making and controlling cells. cytopenia A condition in which the number of blood cells is low. del(5q) An abnormal chromosome change in which the “q” part of chromosome 5 is missing (deleted).