NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Myelodysplastic Syndromes
63 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® : Myelodysplastic Syndromes, 2018 Dictionary deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) A chain of chemicals in cells that contains coded instructions for making and controlling cells. diagnose To confirm or identify a disease or health condition. differential Measurement of the different types of white blood cells present in a blood sample. donor A person who gives their organs, tissues, or cells to another person. donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) Procedure in which the patient receives white blood cells from the same person who donated blood-forming cells (blood stem cells) for the stem cell transplant. dysplasia Cells have an abnormal size, shape, or look (appearance) when viewed with a microscope. erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) A drug that tells (stimulates) the bone marrow to make more red blood cells. erythropoietin (EPO) A substance that is made naturally in the body and that tells (stimulates) the bone marrow to make more red blood cells. fatigue Severe tiredness despite getting enough sleep that limits one’s ability to function. flow cytometry A test that looks at certain substances on the surface of cells to identify the type of cells present. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) A lab test that uses special dyes to look for abnormal changes in a cell’s genes and chromosomes. folate A nutrient in the body that is needed to make red blood cells. gene A set of coded instructions in cells for making and controlling cells. gene mutation An abnormal change in the coded instructions in cells for making and controlling cells. genetic tests Tests of the coded instructions in cells that are needed to make and control cells. These instructions are called genes and they are grouped into long strands called chromosomes. graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) A disease that occurs when transplanted blood stem cells (immature blood-forming cells) from a donor attack a patient’s normal cells. graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect An attack on cancer cells by transplanted blood stem cells (immature blood-forming cells) from a donor. granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) A substance that helps (stimulates) the bone marrow to make more white blood cells called neutrophils. It is made naturally in the body but can also be made in a lab. granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) A substance that helps (stimulates) the bone marrow to make more of certain types of white blood cells. It is made naturally in the body but can also be made in a lab. hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) A treatment that replaces damaged or diseased cells in the bone marrow—sponge-like tissue in the center of bones where blood cells are made—with healthy blood-forming cells. Also called stem cell transplant. hematopoietic stem cell or hematopoietic cell An immature blood-forming cell from which all other types of blood cells are made. Also called blood stem cell. hemoglobin A protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. high-intensity chemotherapy Treatment with high doses of strong cancer drugs that are more likely to cause severe side effects. high-intensity treatment Treatment that is more likely to cause severe side effects and often requires a hospital stay. higher-risk MDS MDS that is more likely to progress faster or turn into acute myeloid leukemia quickly if not treated.