NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Myelodysplastic Syndromes
64 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® : Myelodysplastic Syndromes, 2018 Dictionary HLA-DR15 An immune system protein that is found on the surface of some cells. The presence of the protein on MDS cells can affect how well immunosuppressive therapy works. hormone A chemical in the body that activates cells or organs. human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Special proteins on the surface of cells that help the body to tell its own cells apart from foreign cells. human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type The unique set of proteins on the surface of cells that help the body to tell its own cells apart from foreign cells. human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing A blood test that finds a person’s HLA type—the unique set of proteins on the surface of cells that help the body to tell its own cells apart from foreign cells. hypocellular bone marrow The number of cells in the bone marrow is lower than normal. immune response The action of the body’s natural defense against infections and disease in response to foreign substances. immune system The body’s natural defense against infection and disease. immunomodulators Drugs that change (modify) different parts of the immune system. immunosuppressive therapy (IST) Treatment with drugs that weaken (suppress) the body’s immune system. immunotherapy Treatment with drugs that modify the immune system to help the body fight cancer. International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) A system that doctors use to rate the severity of MDS and classify it into groups based on the likely outcome (prognosis). intestine The organ that food passes through after leaving the stomach. intravenous (IV) Given by a needle or tube inserted into a vein. intravenous (IV) infusion A method of giving drugs slowly through a needle into a vein. iron A mineral that is found in red blood cells and that the body needs to make new red blood cells. iron chelation therapy Treatment that is used to remove excess iron from the body. iron overload The buildup of excess iron in the body. local anesthesia A controlled loss of feeling in a small area of the body caused by drugs. low-intensity chemotherapy Treatment with cancer drugs that are less likely to cause severe side effects. low-intensity treatment Treatment that is less likely to cause severe side effects and usually does not require a hospital stay. lower-risk MDS MDS that is more likely to grow and progress slowly and may not cause many or severe symptoms for a long time. lymphocyte A type of white blood cell that helps protect the body from infection and disease. medical history All health events and medications taken to date. microscope A tool that uses lenses to see things the eyes can’t. molecular test Tests that look for abnormal changes in genes known to have an effect on cancer treatment or outcomes. monocyte A type of white blood cell. mutation An abnormal change. myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) A cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets.