NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Myelodysplastic Syndromes
65 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® : Myelodysplastic Syndromes, 2018 Dictionary neutropenia A condition in which the number of white blood cells called neutrophils is low. neutrophil A type of white blood cell that helps fight infections and has small particles (granules). pathologist A doctor who is an expert in testing cells and tissue to find disease. Philadelphia chromosome An abnormal chromosome that is formed when parts of chromosomes 9 and 22 break off and switch with each other. It contains the abnormal BCR-ABL1 gene and is a key feature of chronic myeloid leukemia. physical exam A review of the body by a health expert for signs of disease. platelet A type of blood cell that helps control bleeding. platelet transfusion A slow injection of platelets—blood cells that help control bleeding—into a vein. prognosis The likely or expected course, pattern, and outcome of a disease based on tests. prognostic factor Something that affects and helps predict the likely pattern and outcome of a disease. prognostic scoring system A system that doctors use to rate the severity of MDS and classify it into groups based on the likely outcome (prognosis). progression The course of a disease as it grows, gets worse, or spreads in the body. protein A chain of small chemical compounds important to every cell in the body. red blood cell A type of blood cell that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. red blood cell growth factor A substance that causes new red blood cells to grow in the bone marrow. It is made naturally in the body but can also be made in a lab to use as treatment. red blood cell transfusion A slow injection of red blood cells into a vein. reduced-intensity conditioning Treatment with lower doses of strong cancer drugs or low-intensity drugs that is used to destroy cells in the bone marrow to prepare (condition) the body for a hematopoietic cell transplant. regimen A treatment plan that specifies the dose, schedule, and duration of treatment. relapse The return or worsening of cancer after a period of improvement. reticulocyte Younger (precursor) cells that become mature red blood cells. Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) A newer system that doctors use to rate the severity of MDS and classify it into groups based on the likely outcome (prognosis). ring sideroblasts Young red blood cells that have too much iron and shows up as a circle (ring) around the center of the cells. risk group Classification of MDS based on its severity and the chance (risk) that it will progress to AML (acute myeloid leukemia). risk score A rating of the severity of MDS that describes how fast or slow it will likely grow and progress. sedative A drug that helps a person to relax or go to sleep. serum EPO The amount of natural erythropoietin—a substance made in the body that causes red blood cells to grow—that is found in the blood.