85 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® : Melanoma, 2018 Dictionary Dictionary ABCDE rule A memory device for characteristics of moles or skin lesions that might be cancer. abdomen The belly area between the chest and pelvis. ablative therapy Use of intense, narrow beams of light or carbon dioxide to cut into the surface of the skin and kill cancer cells. abnormal Not normal. acral lentiginous melanoma An uncommon type of melanoma that looks like a bruise on the palms of the hands or soles of the feet or like a dark stripe in a nail. adjuvant treatment Treatment given after the main (primary) treatment. advanced melanoma Cancer that has spread beyond the area near the main tumor. anesthesia A controlled loss of feeling with or without loss of wakefulness. anesthetic A drug or other substance that causes a controlled loss of feeling or awareness with or without loss of wakefulness. angiolymphatic invasion Melanoma has grown into (invaded) lymph or blood vessels. asymmetry One half or side of the mole does not match the other half or side. atypical mole A mole that looks different from a normal or common mole. autoimmune disorder A condition in which the body’s natural defense against infection and disease (immune system) attacks healthy tissue in the body. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) A germ similar to the one that causes tuberculosis that is given to activate the body’s natural defense against disease. baseline A starting point to which future test results are compared. biochemotherapy Combination treatment with immunotherapy (drugs that boost the body’s natural response to fight disease) and chemotherapy (drugs that kill fast-growing cells). biological therapy Treatment that boosts the body’s natural defense against disease. biopsy Removal of small amounts of tissue from your body to test for disease. blood test A test that checks for signs of disease in the blood. blood thinner A medication given to prevent or treat blood clots. blood vessel A tube that carries blood throughout the body. border irregularity The edges (border) of the mole are ragged or notched. Breslow thickness A measure of how deep the melanoma tumor has grown into the skin. broad-spectrum sunscreen A substance that protects the skin from the sun by blocking 2 types of harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays—UVA and UVB. cancer stage Rating or description of the growth and spread of cancer in the body. cells The “building blocks” of tissues in the body. central nervous system (CNS) The brain and spinal cord.