91 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® : Melanoma, 2018 Dictionary surgery An operation to remove or repair a part of the body. surgical margin The normal-looking tissue around the edge of a tumor removed during surgery. systemic therapy Drugs used to treat cancer cells throughout the body. targeted therapy Drugs that specifically target and kill cancer cells. treatment response An outcome or improvement caused by treatment. true local scar recurrence Cancer not completely removed or destroyed by treatment, with cancer cells found in or right next to the surgical scar where the first melanoma was removed. Also called persistent melanoma. tumor An overgrowth of cells. tumor regression A decrease in the size of the tumor. ulceration The tumor’s top skin layer is broken or missing. ulceration status Whether or not the tumor’s top skin layer is present and intact (not ulcerated) or is broken or missing (ulcerated). ulcerative colitis Long-lasting inflammation that causes tears (ulcers) in the lining of the colon (organ that changes eaten food from liquid to solid). ultrasound A test that uses sound waves to take pictures of the inside of the body. ultraviolet (UV) energy or rays Invisible light energy that comes from the sun and tanning beds. UV energy has a wavelength shorter than visible light but longer than x-rays. ultraviolet-A (UVA) energy or rays Long-wave invisible light energy that comes from the sun and tanning beds. ultraviolet-B (UVB) energy or rays Short-wave invisible light energy that comes from the sun and in small amounts from tanning beds. upstage Changing the rating of the extent of cancer in the body— the cancer stage—from a lower, less extensive stage to a higher, more extensive stage. vaccine therapy A treatment used to help the immune system (the body’s natural defense against disease) prevent a disease. vertical growth phase Direction of tumor growth is down into the skin. white blood cells A type of blood cell that fights disease and infection. wide excision Surgical treatment that removes the whole tumor and some normal-looking tissue around its edge. widespread metastatic disease Cancer that has spread from the first tumor to many distant sites in the body. x-ray Use of small amounts of radiation to make pictures of organs and structures inside the body.