NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

63 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® : Myeloproliferative Neoplasms, 2018 Dictionary Dictionary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) A fast-growing cancer that starts in the bone marrow and causes too many immature white blood cells to be made. allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) A cancer treatment that replaces blood stem cells with donor stem cells which in turn make a new immune system and attack the cancer cells. anemia A condition in which the number of red blood cells is low. anticoagulant A medicine that reduces blood clotting. Also called blood thinner. BCR-ABL1 gene An abnormal gene that is formed when parts of chromosomes 9 and 22 break off and switch with each other. This gene is found on the Philadelphia chromosome and is the key feature of chronic myeloid leukemia. biopsy Removal of small amounts of tissue from the body to be tested for disease. blood clot A thickened mass of blood. Also called a thrombosis. blood smear A test that involves viewing a drop of blood with a microscope to assess features of blood cells. blood stem cell A blood-forming cell from which all other types of blood cells are formed. Also called hematopoietic stem cell. bone marrow The soft, sponge-like tissue in the center of most bones where blood cells are made. bone marrow aspiration The removal of a small amount of liquid bone marrow to test for disease. bone marrow biopsy The removal of a small amount of solid bone and bone marrow to test for disease. chemotherapy Drugs that stop the life cycle of cells so they don’t increase in number. chromosome Long strands that contain bundles of coded instructions in cells for making and controlling cells. chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) A cancer of blood-forming cells that causes too many white blood cells called granulocytes to form. clinical trial Research on a test or treatment to assess its safety or how well it works. coagulation test A test of the proteins that cause blood to clot. complete blood count (CBC) A test of the number of blood cells in a sample. complete remission No signs of cancer are present after treatment. complex karyotype The presence of 3 or more unrelated defects in chromosomes that occur in more than one cell. comprehensive metabolic panel Tests of up to 14 chemicals in your blood. computed tomography (CT) A test that uses x-rays from many angles to make a picture of the inside of the body. conditioning treatment Treatment that is used to destroy cells in the bone marrow to prepare your body for a stem cell transplant. cytogenetic testing A test that uses a microscope to examine a cell’s chromosomes. cytoreductive treatment Treatment that reduces the number of cells. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) A chain of chemicals in cells that contains coded instructions for making and controlling cells.