NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
64 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® : Myeloproliferative Neoplasms, 2018 Dictionary diagnosis To identify a disease. differential Measurement of the different types of white blood cells present in a blood sample. erythromelalgia A health condition that turns skin red and may cause painful, burning sensations. erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) A drug that helps bone marrow to make more red blood cells. erythropoietin (EPO) A substance that helps bone marrow to make more red blood cells. essential thrombocythemia (ET) A cancer of blood-forming cells that causes a high number of platelets. fatigue Severe tiredness despite getting enough sleep that limits one’s ability to function. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) A lab test that uses special dyes to look for abnormal changes in a cell’s genes and chromosomes. gene A set of coded instructions in cells for making and controlling cells. graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) An attack on normal cells by transplanted blood stem cells from a donor. graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect An attack on cancer cells by transplanted blood stem cells from a donor. granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) A substance that helps (stimulates) the bone marrow to make more white blood cells called neutrophils. It is made naturally in the body but can also be made in a lab. hematocrit The percentage of red blood cells to total blood. hematopoietic stem cell or hematopoietic cell A blood-forming cell from which all other types of blood cells are made. Also called blood stem cell. hemoglobin A protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. high-intensity chemotherapy Treatment with high doses of strong cancer drugs that are more likely to cause severe side effects. human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Special proteins on the surface of cells that help the body to tell its own cells apart from foreign cells. human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type The unique set of proteins on the surface of cells that help the body to tell its own cells apart from foreign cells. human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing A blood test that finds a person’s HLA type—the unique set of proteins on the surface of cells that help the body to tell its own cells apart from foreign cells. imaging test A test that makes pictures of the insides of your body. immune system Your body’s natural defense against infection and disease. immunomodulator A medicine that changes some parts of your body’s disease- fighting system. immunotherapy A medicine that increases the activity of your body’s disease-fighting system. iron A mineral needed to make new red blood cells. iron chelation therapy Treatment that is used to remove excess iron from your body. iron overload The buildup of excess iron in your body. karyotype A test that uses a microscope to examine a cell’s chromosomes. lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) A protein that helps to make energy in cells. liver function tests Tests that measure chemicals made or processed by the liver.