64 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® : Multiple Myeloma, 2018 Dictionary fatigue Severe tiredness despite getting enough sleep. fat pad The fat that is just under the skin of the belly area. fine-needle aspiration biopsy Use of a thin needle to remove a small amount of tissue from the body to test for cancer cells. flow cytometry A test that measures myeloma cells in the bone marrow (soft tissue in the center of bones where blood cells are made). fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) A lab test that uses special dyes to look for abnormal changes in a cell’s genes (coded instructions for controlling cells) and chromosomes (long strands of genes). follow-up test Tests done after the start of treatment to check how well treatment is working. fracture A crack or break in a bone. free light chain The unattached, shorter fragments of M-proteins that are made by myeloma cells. gene A set of coded instructions in cells needed to make new cells and control how cells behave. gene mutation Abnormal change in the instructions in cells for making and controlling cells. general anesthesia A controlled loss of wakefulness from drugs. genetic tests Tests of the instructions in cells for making and controlling cells. graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) A disease that occurs when transplanted blood stem cells from another person (donor) attack a patient’s normal cells. graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect An attack on cancer cells by transplanted blood stem cells from another person (donor). harvest The process of removing blood stem cells from a person. heavy chain The longer protein chain that is part of an antibody (protein that helps the body fight off infections). high-dose chemotherapy An intensive drug treatment to kill cancer and disease- fighting cells so transplanted blood stem cells aren’t rejected by the body. human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Special proteins on the surface of cells that help the body to tell its own cells apart from foreign cells. human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type The unique set of proteins on the surface of cells that help the body to tell its own cells apart from foreign cells. human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing A blood test that finds a person’s HLA type—the unique set of proteins on the surface of cells that help the body to tell its own cells apart from foreign cells. hyperviscosity A condition in which the blood becomes very thick because of too many proteins in the blood. imaging test A test that makes pictures (images) of the inside of the body. immune system The body’s natural defense against infection and disease. immunoglobulin A protein that is made by plasma cells to help fight off infection. Also called antibody. inflammation Redness, heat, pain, and swelling from injury or infection. intestine The organ that food passes through after leaving the stomach. intravenous Given by a needle or tube inserted into a vein. karyotyping A process that examines a map, or karyotype, of a cell’s chromosomes—long strands of bundles of coded instructions for controlling cells.