NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Multiple Myeloma

64 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® : Multiple Myeloma, 2019 Words to know external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) Radiation therapy (use of high-energy rays to destroy cancer cells) received from a machine outside the body. extraosseous Occurring outside the bone. fatigue Severe tiredness despite getting enough sleep. fat pad The fat that is just under the skin of the belly area. FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration FDG fluorodeoxyglucose fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy Use of a thin needle to remove a small amount of tissue from the body to test for cancer cells. FISH fluorescence in situ hybridization FLC free light chain flow cytometry A test that measures myeloma cells in the bone marrow (soft tissue in the center of bones where blood cells are made). fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) A lab test that uses special dyes to look for abnormal changes in a cell’s genes (coded instructions for controlling cells) and chromosomes (long strands of genes). fluorodeoxyglucose A mix of fluoride and glucose that is used to find cancer on certain imaging tests. FNA fine-needle aspiration follow-up test Tests done after the start of treatment to check how well treatment is working. fracture A crack or break in a bone. free light chain The unattached, shorter fragments of M-proteins that are made by myeloma cells. gene A set of coded instructions in cells needed to make new cells and control how cells behave. gene mutation Abnormal change in the instructions in cells for making and controlling cells. general anesthesia A controlled loss of wakefulness from drugs. genetic tests Tests of the instructions in cells for making and controlling cells. graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) A disease that occurs when transplanted blood stem cells from another person (donor) attack a patient’s normal cells. graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect An attack on cancer cells by transplanted blood stem cells from another person (donor). GVHD graft-versus-host disease GVT graft-versus-tumor harvest The process of removing blood stem cells from a person. heavy chain The longer protein chain that is part of an antibody (protein that helps the body fight off infections). HDAC histone deacetylase high-dose chemotherapy An intensive drug treatment to kill cancer and disease- fighting cells so transplanted blood stem cells aren’t rejected by the body. HLA human leukocyte antigen human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Special proteins on the surface of cells that help the body to tell its own cells apart from foreign cells.