65 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® : Multiple Myeloma, 2018 Dictionary kidneys A pair of organs that filter blood and remove waste from the body through urine. kyphoplasty Surgery to support the spine with a balloon-like device and a type of cement. lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) A protein found in the blood that is involved in energy production in cells. light chain The shorter protein chain that is part of an antibody. light chain myeloma Condition in which myeloma cells make only free light chains and no complete M-proteins. Also called Bence Jones myeloma. liver Organ that removes waste from the blood. local anesthesia A controlled loss of feeling in a small area of the body caused by drugs. local therapy Treatment that affects cells in one specific area of the body only. lymphocyte A type of white blood cell that helps to protect the body from infection. lytic bone lesion An area of bone that looks as if it has been eaten away. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan A test that uses radio waves and powerful magnets to view parts of the inside of the body and how they are working. maintenance treatment Medicine that is given in a lower dose or less often to keep (maintain) good results of prior treatments. medical history All health events and medications taken to date. microscope A tool that uses lenses to see very small things the eyes can’t. mini transplant A cancer treatment that uses low doses of chemotherapy before giving the patient healthy, immature blood-forming cells (blood stem cells) taken from another person called a donor. M-protein An abnormal antibody made by myeloma cells that doesn’t fight germs. Also called monoclonal protein. multiple myeloma A cancer of plasma cells—white blood cells that make germ- fighting proteins—that has spread throughout the bone marrow. myeloma cell / myeloma cancer cell An abnormal plasma cell that makes too many copies of itself and that grows and divides all the time. observation A period of testing without treatment or right after treatment to check for cancer growth. oligosecretory myeloma Myeloma that makes very few or no M-proteins. Also called nonsecretory myeloma. orthopedic surgeon A surgeon who’s an expert in operations of the bones. osseous Occurring inside the bone. osteonecrosis The death of bone cells. pathologist A doctor who’s an expert in testing cells and tissue to find disease. physical exam A review of the body by a health expert for signs of disease. plasma The yellowish liquid part of blood that carries blood cells. plasma cell A type of white blood cell that makes germ-fighting proteins. plasma cell proliferation A test that shows how many myeloma cells are dividing. plasmacytoma A mass formed by abnormal plasma cells (myeloma cells).