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30

NCCN Guidelines for Patients

®

Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma, Version 1.2016

3

Overview of cancer treatments Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy consists of high-energy rays that

damage DNA. This either kills the cancer cells or

stops new cancer cells from being made. Radiation

can also harm normal cells. As a result, treatment

methods are always being improved to target the

tumor more precisely.

Involved-site radiation therapy

ISRT (

i

nvolved-

s

ite

r

adiation

t

herapy) is sometimes

used to treat peripheral T-cell lymphoma. It can treat

lymph nodes in which the cancer first started and

cancer near to these nodes. It is given with a method

called EBRT (

e

xternal

b

eam

r

adiation

t

herapy). This

method delivers radiation with a machine that is

outside your body.

Treatment planning with a simulation session is

needed. During simulation, pictures of the tumor will

be taken after your body is moved into the position

needed for treatment. CT with contrast is used. PET/

CT and MRI often enhance treatment planning. For

tumors near the breastbone, 4D-CT (

f

our-

d

imensional

c

omputed

t

omography) or fluoroscopy can account

for tumor movement from breathing. If your breathing

causes large movements, motion control methods

during the scans may be used.

Using the scans, your treatment team will plan the

best radiation dose, number and shape of radiation

beams, and number of treatment sessions. Beams

are shaped with computer software and hardware

added to the radiation machine. Radiation beams are

aimed at the tumor with help from ink marks on your

skin.

During treatment, you will lie on a table in the same

position as done for simulation. Devices may be

used to keep you from moving. These may include a

mesh mask and body mold. You will be alone while

the therapists operate the machine from the nearby

control room.

The therapists will be able to see, hear, and speak

with you. As treatment is given, you may hear noises.

One session takes less than 10 minutes. The types of

EBRT include:

• 3D-CRT (

t

hree-

d

imensional

c

onformal

r

adiation

t

herapy) – Treatment is completed

in about 6 weeks and uses photon beams that

match the shape of the tumor,

• IMRT (

i

ntensity-

m

odulated

r

adiation

t

herapy)

– Treatment is completed in about 6 weeks

and uses photon beams of different strengths

based on the thickness of the tumor.

• Proton therapy – Treatment is completed in

about 6 weeks and uses proton beams that

deliver radiation mostly within the tumor.

IGRT (

i

mage-

g

uided

r

adiation

t

herapy) can improve

how well the radiation beam targets some tumors.

IGRT uses the machine that delivers the radiation

to also take images of the tumor and normal body

structures. This can be done right before or during

treatment. These images are compared to the ones

taken during simulation. If needed, changes will be

made to your body position or the radiation beams.

Side effects of radiation

Most side effects of radiation depend on where the

treatment was given. However, many people feel

fatigue. Changes in skin are also common right after

treatment. Your treated skin may look and feel as if

it has a mild sunburn. It may also become dry, sore,

and feel painful when touched. You may also have

short-term hair loss, but only where treated.