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NCCN Guidelines for Patients


Prostate Cancer, Version 1.2016




active surveillance

Delay of treatment with ongoing testing to watch for cancer


androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)

Treatment that stops the testicles from making testosterone.


A drug that stops the action of the hormone testosterone.

bilateral orchiectomy

Surgical removal of both testicles from the body.


The removal of tissue or fluid samples from your body to test

for disease.


The placement of radioactive objects near or in a tumor.

castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC)

Cancer that has grown or spread despite taking medicine

that reduced testosterone to low levels.

combined androgen blockade (CAB)

Castration treatment used with an antiandrogen.

computed tomography (CT)

A test that uses x-rays to view body parts.


Treatment that freezes tissue to kill cancer cells.

digital rectal exam (DRE)

An exam of the prostate by feeling it through the wall of the


dry orgasm

Having an orgasm without ejaculation.

dual energy X-ray (DEXA)

A test that measures bone strength.


The tube through which sperm travel after leaving the


erectile dysfunction

The inability to achieve erections sufficient for intercourse.

external beam radiation therapy (EBRT)

Radiation therapy received from a machine outside the body.

extracapsular extension

Cancer growth through the prostatic capsule.


Severe tiredness despite getting enough sleep that limits

one’s ability to function.

fine-needle aspiration

Use of a thin needle to remove fluid or tissue from the body.


A passage between two organs that aren’t normally



An increase in testosterone after starting castration



Information in cells for building new cells.

Gleason grade

A score from 1 (best) to 5 (worst) made by a pathologist

based on the ability of prostate cells to form glands.

The primary grade is the most common pattern, and the

secondary grade is the second most common pattern. The

two grades are summed to give a Gleason score.

Gleason score

The grading system for prostate cancer.

high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy

Radioactive objects are removed from the tumor after the

radiation dose has been given.

hormone therapy

Treatment that stops the making or action of hormones in the

body; androgen deprivation therapy.

image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT)

Radiation therapy that uses imaging tests during treatment to

better target the tumor.


Treatment that uses the immune system to fight disease.