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101

NCCN Guidelines for Patients

®

Prostate Cancer, Version 1.2016

Glossary

Dictionary

intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

Radiation therapy that uses small beams of different

intensities.

intermittent treatment

Alternating periods of time on and off treatment.

interstitial radiation

A type of radiation therapy that places radioactive objects in

the tumor.

laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

Removal of the prostate through several small cuts in the

pelvis.

life expectancy

The number of years a person is likely to live.

low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy

Radioactive objects are inserted into the tumor and left to

decay.

luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)

agonist

A drug that acts in the brain to stop the testicles from making

testosterone.

luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)

antagonist

A drug that acts in the brain to stop the testicles from making

testosterone.

lymph

A clear fluid containing white blood cells.

lymph node

A small clump of special immune cells. There are thousands

of lymph nodes located throughout the body.

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

A test that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to view the

parts of the body and how they are working.

magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound (MRI-US)

fusion biopsy

Removal of a tissue sample using two types of imaging tests

to help insert medical tools.

metastasis

The growth of cancer beyond local tissue.

multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging

(mpMRI)

An imaging test that measures many features of tissue to

detect cancer.

mutation

An abnormal change in the coded instructions within cells.

nerve-sparing prostatectomy

One or both bundles of cavernous nerves aren’t removed

during a prostatectomy.

nomogram

A tool that uses clinical information to predict an outcome.

nuclear medicine specialist

A doctor who’s an expert in tests that use radioactive

substances.

observation

Testing on a regular basis so that supportive care can be

given if cancer symptoms are likely to start.

open radical prostatectomy

Removal of the prostate through one large cut.

overflow incontinence

Leakage of urine due to an overly full bladder.

pathologist

A doctor who specializes in testing cells to identify disease.

pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND)

Removal of the lymph nodes in the pelvis.

perineum

The area in men between the scrotum and anus.

persistent cancer

Cancer not completely removed or destroyed by treatment.

positron emission tomography (PET)

Use of radioactive material to see the shape and function of

body parts.

primary grade

The most common pattern of prostate cells’ ability to form

into glands.

primary treatment

The main treatment used to cure or control cancer.