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102

NCCN Guidelines for Patients

®

Prostate Cancer, Version 1.2016

Glossary

Dictionary

prognosis

A prediction of the pattern and outcome of a disease based

on clinical information.

prostate

A male gland that makes fluid that protects sperm from the

acid in the vagina.

prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

A protein made by the prostate.

prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density

Comparison of the level of PSA to the size of the prostate.

prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time

The time during which the level of PSA doubles.

prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level

Number of nanograms per milliliter of PSA.

prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity

How much the level of PSA changes over time.

radical perineal prostatectomy

Removal of the prostate through one cut made between the

scrotum and anus.

radical retropubic prostatectomy

Removal of the prostate through one cut made in the pelvis.

radiologist

A doctor who specializes in reading imaging tests.

radiopharmaceutical

A drug that contains a radioactive substance.

recurrence

The return of cancer after a disease-free period.

risk group

Prediction of a person’s chances for an event based on if he

or she matches the criteria of a group.

robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy

Removal of the prostate by a surgeon with a machine that

holds the surgical tools.

secondary grade

The second most common pattern of prostate cells’ ability to

form into glands.

seminal vesicle

One of two male glands that makes fluid used by sperm for

energy.

side effect

An unhealthy or unpleasant physical or emotional response

to a test or treatment.

stress incontinence

Leakage of urine when pressure is exerted on the bladder

from sneezing, coughing, exercise, and so forth.

supportive care

Treatment for symptoms of a disease.

surgical margin

Normal tissue around the edge of a tumor that is removed

during an operation.

testosterone

A hormone that helps the sexual organs in men to work.

three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy

(3D-CRT)

Radiation therapy that uses beams that match the shape of

the tumor.

transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)

A type of ultrasound that takes pictures of the prostate

through the rectum.

transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)

Surgical removal of some prostatic tissue through the

urethra.

triple androgen blockade

Finasteride or dutasteride with combined androgen blockade.

urethra

A tube that expels urine from the body; it also expels semen

in men.

urge incontinence

The feeling of having to rush to urinate or you’ll leak urine.

urinary incontinence

Inability to control the release of urine from the bladder.

urinary retention

Inability to empty the bladder.

visceral disease

Spread of cancer cells from the first tumor to internal organs.