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20

NCCN Guidelines for Patients

®

Prostate Cancer, Version 1.2016

2

Cancer staging

Review

M = Metastasis

The M category tells you if the cancer has spread

to distant sites. Para-aortic, common iliac, inguinal,

supraclavicular, scalene, and cervical lymph nodes

are distant from the prostate. Prostate cancer tends

to metastasize to bone then the lungs and liver.

M scores for prostate cancer include:

MX

means it is unknown if cancer has spread

to distant sites.

M0

means that there is no growth to distant

sites.

M1

means that the cancer has spread to

distant sites.

o

M1a

is cancer that has spread to

distant lymph nodes.

o

M1b

is cancer that has spread to

bone(s).

o

M1c

is cancer that has spread to

distant organs.

Review

• Prostate cancer is grouped into 4 stages.

• Cancer stages are defined by the growth and

spread of the tumor.

• PSA, DRE, and a prostate biopsy can help doctors

assess the size of a tumor.

• The Gleason score is a grading system for how

much prostate cancer cells retain their ability to

form glands.

• Doctors rate the extent of prostate cancer with

T, N, and M scores. The T score is a rating of

size and extent of the primary tumor. The N score

reflects if the cancer has spread to nearby lymph

nodes. The M score reflects if the cancer has

spread to distant sites.