NCCN Guidelines for Patients
Prostate Cancer, Version 1.2016
Overview of cancer treatments Immunotherapy | Chemotherapy
be inserted into your scrotum. Your testicles won’t
be removed with LHRH agonists but these drugs will
shrink your testicles over time.
Side effects of antiandrogens are like those of ADT.
When an antiandrogen is used with an LHRH agonist,
diarrhea is a major side effect. Other side effects
include nausea, liver problems, breast growth and
tenderness, and tiredness. Estrogens also increase
risk for breast growth and tenderness as well as blood
clots. Ketoconazole can cause low cortisol levels and
cause health problems when taken with other drugs.
Abiraterone with prednisone is a newer hormone
therapy. While taking abiraterone, you should be
tested for high blood pressure (hypertension), low
potassium (hypokalemia), fluid buildup (edema), and
problems with your adrenal glands, heart, and liver.
You could also have hot flashes, fatigue, diarrhea,
vomiting, constipation, coughing, shortness of breath,
joint or muscle pain, and lung or urinary infections.
Enzalutamide is also a newer hormone therapy. A rare
but severe side effect of enzalutamide is seizures.
Common side effects include fatigue, hot flashes,
diarrhea, headaches, pain, not feeling hungry,
constipation, lung infections, swelling, shortness of
breath, weight loss, headache, high blood pressure,
dizziness, and a feeling that things are spinning
around (vertigo). The chance that you may fall is
greater when taking enzalutamide.
Not all of the side effects of hormone therapy are
listed here. Please ask your treatment team for a
complete list of common and rare side effects. If a
side effect bothers you, tell your treatment team.
There may be ways to help you feel better. Some
ways to reduce risks of hormone therapy are
discussed in Part 6, but your treatment team can tell
Sipuleucel-T is a drug that uses your white blood cells
to destroy prostate cancer cells. In a lab, your white
blood cells from a blood sample will be changed by a
protein so they will find and destroy prostate cancer
cells. Common side effects of this drug include chills,
fever, nausea, and headache. These effects don’t
appear to last for long. Serious heart problems rarely
Chemotherapy, or "chemo," is the use of drugs to kill
cancer cells. Some chemotherapy drugs kill cancer
cells by damaging their DNA or disrupting the making
of DNA. Other drugs interfere with cell parts that are
needed for making new cells.
Docetaxel and cabazitaxel are chemotherapy drugs
used to treat advanced prostate cancer. They may
improve survival, delay or relieve symptoms, and
reduce tumor growth and PSA levels. Mitoxantrone
hydrochloride may relieve symptoms caused by
advanced cancer. Read Part 7 for more details on
for a list of drugs used to treat prostate
cancer. The chemotherapy drugs used to treat
prostate cancer are liquids that are injected into a
vein. The drugs travel in the bloodstream to treat
cancer throughout the body. Chemotherapy is given in
cycles of treatment days followed by days of rest. This
allows the body to recover before the next cycle.
Docetaxel is an option for some men who are taking
ADT for the first time. In this case, six 3-week cycles
are advised. Side effects may include fatigue,
weakness or numbness in the toes or fingers
(neuropathy), inflammation of the mouth (stomatitis),