NCCN Quick Guide™ | Rectal Cancer

1 of 2 NCCN QUICK GUIDE tm Colon Cancer, 2018 This NCCNQUICK GUIDE tm sheet summarizes key points from the complete NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® : Rectal Cancer . T hese guidelines explain which tests and treatments are recommended by experts in cancer. To view and download the guidelines, visit NCC N.or g/patients or, to order printed copies, visit What is rectal cancer? The rectum is the last part of the large intestine. Stool is held in the rectum until it leaves the body through the anus. Cancer can form in growths called polyps on the inside of the rectum. If not found and treated early enough, cancer can grow through the rectal wall and into other areas of the body. 8 How is rectal cancer staged? The following key pieces of information are used to give colon cancer a stage: „„ How far cancer has grown through the rectal wall „„ Whether there is cancer in nearby lymph nodes „„ Whether the cancer has spread to areas far from the rectum (metastasized) 12 Who is at increased risk of rectal cancer? People with Lynch syndrome (also called hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer) or FAP (familial adenomatous polyposis) are at high risk of getting colorectal cancer. 15 Will I need tests before treatment? For everyone with rectal cancer „„ Complete physical exam and health history „„ Colonoscopy „„ Biopsy „„ Testing for mismatch repair (MMR)/microsatellite instability (MSI) gene mutations 13 For some people with rectal cancer „„ Blood tests (complete blood count [CBC], chemistry profile, carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA]) „„ Imaging tests (computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) „„ Testing for KRAS/NRAS and BRAF gene mutations 13 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® Page Number Ü NCCN GUIDELINES FOR PATIENTS ® NCCN QUICK GUIDE tm Rectal Cancer 2018