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53

NCCN Guidelines for Patients

®

:

Rectal Cancer, Version 1.2017

Review

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Stage I rectal cancer has grown into the second

layer of the rectal wall (T1 tumors) or into

the third layer (T2 tumors). Some T1 tumors

may not need treatment after a polypectomy.

Otherwise, T1 and T2 tumors may be treated

with surgery. Chemotherapy, chemoradiation, or

both may follow.

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A sequence of treatments is used for stages

II and III. Radiation therapy with or without

chemotherapy is used to shrink cancer. Next,

the remaining cancer is removed by surgery.

If surgery isn’t an option, more chemotherapy

is often given. After surgery, chemotherapy

is often given to prevent the cancer from

returning.

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Follow-up care is started when there are no

signs of cancer after surgery. It includes tests

to look for any new cancer and help for side

effects. It also includes help to prevent or detect

other diseases.

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The cancer may return in the rectum or near

to where the rectum was. Surgery may be an

option. Chemoradiation may precede or follow

surgery. When surgery isn’t an option, you may

receive chemotherapy with or without radiation

therapy.

4

Nonmetastatic cancer

Review