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81

NCCN Guidelines for Patients

®

:

Rectal Cancer, Version 1.2017

Dictionary

Dictionary

abdomen

The belly area between the chest and pelvis.

abdominoperineal resection

An operation that removes your rectum, anus, and part of

your colon.

ablation

Treatment using radiofrequency or cold to destroy cancer

cells.

adenocarcinoma

Cancer in cells that line organs and make fluids or

hormones.

adenoma

The most common type of polyp and is the most likely to

form cancer cells. Also called adenomatous polyps.

adjuvant treatment

Treatment that is given to lower the chances of the cancer

returning.

adventitia

The outer layer, in some places, of the rectal wall.

angiolymphatic invasion

Cancer has spread into the tumor’s lymph or blood vessels.

anus

The opening at the end of the digestive system that allows

stool to pass out of the body.

biopsy

Removal of small amounts of tissue or fluid to be tested for

disease.

bolus

A fast injection of a drug.

boost

An extra dose of radiation to a specific area of the body.

brachytherapy

Treatment with radiation received from an object placed

near or in the tumor.

cancer grade

How closely the cancer cells look like normal cells.

cancer stage

Rating of the growth and spread of tumors.

carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

A protein that gets released by some tumors and can be

detected in blood as a tumor marker.

carcinoma in situ

Cancer that has not grown into tissue that could allow

cancer cells to spread. It is a noninvasive cancer.

catheter

A flexible tube inserted in the body to give treatment or drain

fluid from the body.

chemotherapy

Drugs that stop the life cycle of cells so they don’t increase

in number.

clinical stage

The rating of the extent of cancer based on tests before

treatment.

clinical trial

Research on a test or treatment to assess its safety or how

well it works.

colonoscope

A thin, long tube with a light and camera used to see the

colon.

colonoscopy

Insertion of a thin tool into the colon to view or remove

tissue.

colostomy

Surgery to connect a part of the colon to the outside of the

abdomen and allows stool to drain into a bag.

complete blood count (CBC)

A test of the number of blood cells.

computed tomography (CT)

A test that uses x-rays from many angles to make a picture

of the inside of the body.

contrast

A dye put into your body to make clearer pictures during

imaging tests.