NCCN Guidelines for Patients
Rectal Cancer, Version 1.2017
The belly area between the chest and pelvis.
An operation that removes your rectum, anus, and part of
Treatment using radiofrequency or cold to destroy cancer
Cancer in cells that line organs and make fluids or
The most common type of polyp and is the most likely to
form cancer cells. Also called adenomatous polyps.
Treatment that is given to lower the chances of the cancer
The outer layer, in some places, of the rectal wall.
Cancer has spread into the tumor’s lymph or blood vessels.
The opening at the end of the digestive system that allows
stool to pass out of the body.
Removal of small amounts of tissue or fluid to be tested for
A fast injection of a drug.
An extra dose of radiation to a specific area of the body.
Treatment with radiation received from an object placed
near or in the tumor.
How closely the cancer cells look like normal cells.
Rating of the growth and spread of tumors.
carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
A protein that gets released by some tumors and can be
detected in blood as a tumor marker.
carcinoma in situ
Cancer that has not grown into tissue that could allow
cancer cells to spread. It is a noninvasive cancer.
A flexible tube inserted in the body to give treatment or drain
fluid from the body.
Drugs that stop the life cycle of cells so they don’t increase
The rating of the extent of cancer based on tests before
Research on a test or treatment to assess its safety or how
well it works.
A thin, long tube with a light and camera used to see the
Insertion of a thin tool into the colon to view or remove
Surgery to connect a part of the colon to the outside of the
abdomen and allows stool to drain into a bag.
complete blood count (CBC)
A test of the number of blood cells.
computed tomography (CT)
A test that uses x-rays from many angles to make a picture
of the inside of the body.
A dye put into your body to make clearer pictures during