NCCN Guidelines for Patients
Rectal Cancer, Version 1.2017
A clear fluid containing white blood cells.
Small groups of special disease-fighting cells located
throughout the body.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
A test that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to make
pictures of the insides of the body.
All health events and medications taken to date.
Surgery to remove cancer that has spread far from the first
The spread of cancer cells from the first (primary) tumor to a
microsatellite instability (MSI)
Errors in a small DNA part that happen when DNA is making
a copy of itself.
microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H)
The presence of 2 or more MSI markers.
mismatch repair (MMR) proteins
Proteins that correct DNA errors that occur when copies of
DNA are being made.
The first, inner layer of the rectal wall.
A sticky, thick liquid that moisturizes or lubricates.
A thin layer of muscle within the mucosa of the rectal wall.
The third layer of the rectal wall made mostly of muscle.
An abnormal change in the instructions within cells for
making and controlling cells.
Removal of tissue or fluid samples from the body with a
Treatment given before the main treatment used to cure
disease. Also called preoperative treatment.
Cancer cells have not grown into the second layer of the
A period of testing for cancer growth.
The outer layer of tissue lining around the abdomen.
A rating of the extent of cancer based on tests given after
A doctor who’s an expert in testing cells and tissue to find
A polyp shaped like a mushroom with a stalk.
The area between the hip bones.
Spread of cancer into nearby nerves.
A review of the body by a health expert for signs of disease.
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
A process in which copies of a DNA part are made.
An extra growth of tissue from the epithelium of the rectal
portal vein embolization
The blood vessel to the liver tumor is blocked causing the
healthy part of the liver to grow larger.
positron emission tomography (PET)
Use of radioactive material to see the shape and function of
positron emission tomography/computed
A test that uses radioactive material and x-rays to view the
shape and function of organs and tissues.