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98

NCCN Guidelines for Patients

®

Breast Cancer - Early-Stage

(STAGES I AND II)

, Version 1.2016

Glossary

Dictionary

Dictionary

abdomen

The belly area between the chest and pelvis.

adjuvant treatment

Treatment that is given to lower the chances of the cancer

returning.

adrenal gland

A small organ on top of each kidney that makes hormones.

alkaline phosphatase (ALP)

A protein found in most tissues of the body.

antiestrogen

A drug that stops estrogen from attaching to cells.

aromatase inhibitor

A drug that lowers the level of estrogen in the body.

axillary lymph node

A small group of special disease-fighting cells located near

the armpit.

axillary lymph node dissection

Surgery to remove axillary lymph nodes.

bilateral diagnostic mammogram

A test that uses multiple x-rays to make pictures of the

insides of both breasts.

biopsy

Removal of small amounts of tissue or fluid to be tested for

disease.

bone mineral density

A test that measures the strength of bones.

bone scan

A test that uses radioactive material to assess for bone

damage.

boost

An extra dose of radiation to a specific area of the body.

breast implant

A small bag filled with salt water, gel, or both that is used to

remake breasts.

breast reconstruction

Surgery to rebuild breasts.

breast-conserving therapy

Cancer treatment that includes removing the breast lump

and radiation therapy.

cancer stage

Rating of the growth and spread of tumors.

carcinoma

Cancer that starts in cells that form the lining of organs and

structures in the body.

catheter

A flexible tube inserted in the body to give treatment or drain

fluid from the body.

chemotherapy

Drugs that stop the life cycle of cells so they don’t increase in

number.

chest wall

The layer of muscle, bone, and tissue on the outer part of the

chest.

clinical breast exam

A physical exam of the breasts by a health professional to

feel for disease.

clinical stage

The rating of the extent of cancer based on tests before

treatment.

clinical trial

Research on a test or treatment to assess its safety or how

well it works.

complete blood count (CBC)

A test of the number of blood cells.

computed tomography (CT)

A test that uses x-rays from many angles to make a picture

of the inside of the body.

contrast

A dye put into your body to make clearer pictures during

imaging tests.

core needle biopsy

Use of a needle to remove a large tissue sample to test for

cancer cells.