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80

81

NCCN Guidelines for Patients

®

Stomach Cancer, Version 1.2016

NCCN Guidelines for Patients

®

Stomach Cancer, Version 1.2016

Glossary

Dictionary

1

Glossary

Dictionary

general anesthesia

A controlled loss of wakefulness from drugs.

gene

Instructions in cells for making and controlling cells.

human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)

A protein on the edge of a cell that sends signals for the cell

to grow.

imaging

A test that makes pictures of the insides of the body.

immunohistochemistry (IHC)

A lab test of cancer cells to find specific cell traits involved in

abnormal cell growth.

in situ hybridization (ISH)

A lab test that shows the number of a specific gene.

intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

Radiation therapy that uses small beams of different

strengths based on the thickness of the tissue.

jejunostomy tube (J-tube)

A feeding tube that is inserted though a cut into the intestine.

Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS)

A rating scale of one’s ability to do daily activities.

lamina propria

Connective tissue within the mucosa of the stomach wall.

laparoscopy

Use of a thin tool inserted through a cut made into the belly

area.

lymph

A clear fluid containing white blood cells.

lymph node

A small group of special disease-fighting cells located

throughout the body.

lymph node dissection

A type of surgery that removes some disease-fighting

structures called lymph nodes.

medical history

All health events and medications taken to date.

medical oncologist

A doctor who’s an expert in cancer drugs.

metastasis

The spread of cancer cells from the first tumor to another

body part.

mucosa

The first, inner layer of the stomach wall.

muscularis mucosae

A thin layer of muscle within the mucosa of the stomach wall.

muscularis propria

The third layer of the stomach wall made mostly of muscle.

nutritionist

An expert in healthy foods and drinks.

oncology surgeon

A doctor who’s an expert in cancer surgery.

pathologic stage

A rating of the extent of cancer based on tests after

treatment.

pathologist

A doctor who’s an expert in testing cells to find disease.

pelvis

The area of the body between the hip bones.

percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)

A feeding tube inserted through a small cut into the stomach.

physical exam

A study of the body by a health expert for signs of disease.

positron emission tomography-computed

tomography (PET/CT)

A test that uses radioactive material and x-rays to see the

shape and function of body parts.

primary treatment

The main treatment used to rid the body of cancer.

primary tumor

The first mass of cancer cells in the body.

radiation oncologist

A doctor who’s an expert in radiation treatment.

radiation therapy

The use of radiation to treat cancer.

radiologist

A doctor who’s an expert in reading imaging tests.

Dictionary

abdomen

The belly area between the chest and pelvis.

adenocarcinoma

Cancer of cells that make fluids or hormones.

biopsy

Removal of small amounts of tissue or fluid to be tested for

disease.

cancer stage

A rating of the growth and spread of cancer. 

chemoradiation

Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiation

therapy.

chemotherapy

Drugs that stop the life cycle of cells so they don’t increase in

number.

clinical stage

Rating the extent of a tumor based on tests before treatment.

clinical trial

Research on a test or treatment to assess its safety or how

well it works.

complete blood count (CBC)

A test of the number of blood cells.

comprehensive chemistry profile

Measurement of the amount of chemicals in the blood.

computed tomography (CT)

A test that uses x-rays to view body parts.

contrast

A dye put into your body to make clearer pictures during

imaging tests.

diaphragm

A sheet of muscles below the ribs that helps a person to

breathe.

digestive system

A set of organs that breaks down food for the body to use.

Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG)

Performance Scale

A rating scale of one’s ability to do daily activities.

endoscope

A thin, long tube fitted with tools that is guided down the

mouth.

endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR)

Removal of early tumors with a snare that has been guided

down the throat.

endoscopic resection

Treatment that removes early tumors with a tool guided

down the throat.

endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD)

Removal of early tumors with a special knife that has been

guided down the throat.

endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)

A device guided down your throat to make pictures using

sound waves.

epithelium

Tissue that lines the stomach wall.

esophagastroduodenoscopy (EGD)

Use of a thin tool guided down the throat into the esophagus

and stomach. Also called an upper GI endoscopy.

esophagogastric junction (EGJ)

The area where the esophagus and stomach join.

esophagus

The tube-shaped organ between the throat and stomach.

external beam radiation therapy (EBRT)

Radiation therapy received from a machine outside the body.

fine-needle aspiration (FNA)

Removal of a tissue sample with a small needle.

gastrectomy

A surgery that removes some or all of the stomach.

gastroenterologist

A doctor who’s an expert in digestive diseases.