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NCCN Guidelines for Patients

®

Stomach Cancer, Version 1.2016

1

Glossary

Dictionary

Dictionary

abdomen

The belly area between the chest and pelvis.

adenocarcinoma

Cancer of cells that make fluids or hormones.

biopsy

Removal of small amounts of tissue or fluid to be tested for

disease.

cancer stage

A rating of the growth and spread of cancer. 

chemoradiation

Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiation

therapy.

chemotherapy

Drugs that stop the life cycle of cells so they don’t increase in

number.

clinical stage

Rating the extent of a tumor based on tests before treatment.

clinical trial

Research on a test or treatment to assess its safety or how

well it works.

complete blood count (CBC)

A test of the number of blood cells.

comprehensive chemistry profile

Measurement of the amount of chemicals in the blood.

computed tomography (CT)

A test that uses x-rays to view body parts.

contrast

A dye put into your body to make clearer pictures during

imaging tests.

diaphragm

A sheet of muscles below the ribs that helps a person to

breathe.

digestive system

A set of organs that breaks down food for the body to use.

Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG)

Performance Scale

A rating scale of one’s ability to do daily activities.

endoscope

A thin, long tube fitted with tools that is guided down the

mouth.

endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR)

Removal of early tumors with a snare that has been guided

down the throat.

endoscopic resection

Treatment that removes early tumors with a tool guided

down the throat.

endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD)

Removal of early tumors with a special knife that has been

guided down the throat.

endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)

A device guided down your throat to make pictures using

sound waves.

epithelium

Tissue that lines the stomach wall.

esophagastroduodenoscopy (EGD)

Use of a thin tool guided down the throat into the esophagus

and stomach. Also called an upper GI endoscopy.

esophagogastric junction (EGJ)

The area where the esophagus and stomach join.

esophagus

The tube-shaped organ between the throat and stomach.

external beam radiation therapy (EBRT)

Radiation therapy received from a machine outside the body.

fine-needle aspiration (FNA)

Removal of a tissue sample with a small needle.

gastrectomy

A surgery that removes some or all of the stomach.

gastroenterologist

A doctor who’s an expert in digestive diseases.